Instead of a boom and bust cycle of elk carrion availability-as existed before wolves and when winters were harder-there's now a more equitable distribution of carrion throughout winter and early spring, said Chris Wilmers in the on-line journal Public Library of Science biology. He added that scavengers that once relied on winter-killed elk for food now depend on wolf-killed elk. That benefits ravens, eagles, magpies, coyotes and bears (grizzly and black especially as the bears emerge hungry from hibernation. "I call it food for the masses said Ed Bangs, wolf recovery coordinator for the. Fish and Wildlife service. He said he was genuinely surprised by the vast web of life that is linked to wolf kills.
When wolves were reintroduced in, yellowstone, some unexpected
"My research has been in the gallatin Canyon said Creel, where elk inhabit four drainages. Wolves come and go, he said, enabling him to study what elk do in the presence and absence of wolves. "Elk have proven to be pretty adaptable creel said. "When wolves are around, they're more vigilant and do less foraging." Elk move into heavy timber when wolves are around, Creel added, but return to the grassy, open meadows when wolves go away. Creel and other researchers are still working out what that means in terms of the elk's diet and whether there are costs associated with this behavior. Rather surprisingly, elk herd size breaks up into smaller units when wolves are around, said Creel, who had expected herd size to get bigger as a defense mechanism. "I think they're trying to avoid encounters with wolves he said, by being more vigilant, moving into the timber and gathering in smaller herd units. Yellowstone wolves are food Distributors Researchers have also determined that wolves, in the recent absence of hard winters, are now the primary reason for elk mortality. Before wolf reintroduction, deep snows were the main determinant of whether an elk was going to die. Researchers from the University of California at Berkeley determined that the combination of less snow and more wolves has benefited scavengers both big zandhoven and small, from ravens to grizzly bears.
Because they are vulnerable and may run unexpectedly, adults should pick them up if a cougar is encountered. . Children need to be watched and protected no matter where they are. Cougar Danger in California: California is often cited as a terrible example of telangiectasia what happens when cougars are not hunted by sportsmen. . Attacks have been hyped by hunting organizations because in november 1990, california citizens voted for Proposition 117. . Proposition 117 reclassified the mountain lion in California as a " specially protected mammal, " permanently banning the sport hunting of cougars in the state. . In 1996, cougar-hunting proponents got the state legislature to place Proposition 197 on the march primary ballot. It would have overturned the ban on sport hunting cougars. . It was rejected by 58 percent of the voters.6.
They even out the seasonal pulses of runoff; store water for recharging the water table; and provide cold, shaded water for fish, while the now robust willow stands provide habitat for songbirds. "What we're finding is that ecosystems are incredibly complex he said. In addition to wolves changing the feeding habits of elk, the rebound of the beaver in Yellowstone may also have been affected by the 1988 Yellowstone fires, the ongoing drought, warmer and drier winters and other factors yet to be discovered, Smith said. Yellowstone wolf Trophic Cascade, biologists are often faced with the grim task of documenting the cascade effects of what happens when a species is removed from an balletjes ecosystem, by local extirpation or even extinction. In Yellowstone, biologists have the rare, almost unique, opportunity to document what happens when an ecosystem becomes whole again, what happens when a key species is added back into the ecosystem equation. "In the entire scientific literature, there are only five or six comparable circumstances Smith said. "What we're seeing now is a feeding frenzy of scientific research.". Scott Creel, an ecology professor at Montana State University, is hip-deep in that feeding frenzy.
Eighteen-year-old Scott Lancaster was killed on January 14, 1991 while running on a hill above clear Creek high School in Idaho Springs, colorado. . In his book, the beast in the garden, david Baron implies that the death occurred because cougars in boulder, colorado, had become habituated to people. . Wendy keefover-Ring pointed out that Idaho Springs is more than 20 miles from boulder, separated by rugged terrain. . The fatal attack probably had nothing to do with habituated cougars in boulder.5. Cougars and Children: Children are small, often low on the ground, active and noisy. . They are indeed attractive to cougars. . Eleven of the 22 people killed since 1890 were children aged 13 or younger. . Both of the attacks in 2011 were on young children. . Small children need to be carefully watched in cougar country. .
Bbc - earth - when wolves return to the wild, everything changes
Somehow, we tend not to worry about more likely dangers, such as the 40,000 people who die in traffic accidents in the us alone each year. To further put the danger of a cougar attack in perspective, fifteen people won multi-million dollar lotteries in 2009 from Powerball and mega millions alone. . This means you will win a multi-million lottery 19 times before a mountain lion kills you. About 150 people are killed in auto accidents involving deer every year.4 This means that pgb you have already died 195 times in an auto accident involving a deer before a cougar kills you and ten times before you win one of the lotteries. Many more people are attacked by cougars and survive. .
Humans arent shaped like their normal prey, so cougars have difficulty killing people when they do attack. . It is hard to get an accurate figure of nonfatal attacks because some probably are not be reported, and a few are hoaxes. . Apparently there have been fewer cougar attacks in the last few years. . As of September 1st, we have learned of only two nonfatal attacks in the us and Canada in 2011. Cougars and Joggers: Two joggers have been killed since 1890. . On April 23, 1994, barbara barsalou schoner, age 40, was killed while jogging on the American river Canyon Trail in the auburn State recreation Area in northern California.
For most outdoor people in the west, seeing a wild cougar—not treed, dead or tranquilized—is a once in a lifetime experience. Tim Dunbar, Executive director of the mountain lion foundation, says I constantly hear California department of Fish and Game personnel talk about how despite decades of working in wilderness areas of the state they have never seen a lion. . cougars do occasionally follow people, apparently out of curiosity. . There are simple ways to avoid or to mitigate threats from cougars. . Residents in the new housing developments rapidly being built in cougar habitat out West, for example, are advised not to feed pets outdoors, never to feed deer, and avoid landscaping designs that provide cover. What is the risk of being killed by a cougar?
Since 1890, as of August 2011, in all of the United States and Canada, 22 people have been killed by cougars.2 The last fatal attack was in 2008. . Between 19 ten deaths from cougar attacks were documented in the two countries. . In other words,.77 people died each year. Tom Chester defines an attack as one that involves physical contact by mountain lions on people. This does not include an encounter, where a mountain lion may threaten a person, but does not result in physical contact. Nor does it include a sighting, which usually involves no threatening action by the cougar.3 Depredation on livestock and pets and predation on wildlife are not attacks. It would be difficult to find any cause of accidental death less likely to occur. . Many more people are killed each year by lightning. . About 22 people are killed by dogs annually. .
What Happened When Wolves Were Introduced
But instead, public opinion surveys show that a majority of people want to co-exist with cougars in their states. Mountain lions are dangerous mainly on Hollywood screens. . When an attack does occur news media sensationalize. Fear sells. The real danger is "Source Amnesia". This happens when people are repeatedly told something. . They begin to believe it spurs is true even if it is a deliberate lie. It is repeated as truth without remembering the source.1. Cougars are shy and generally avoid humans. .
How dangerous are cougars? In early june of medicatie 2011, numerous reports of cougar sightings circulated in Greenwich, connecticut. . A fuzzy photograph of an apparent cougar seen from the rear was published by the local media. . people responded by closing down a school, relocating a jogging match, cancelling a swimming meet, and closing a nearby natural area. . five days after the cat was captured on camera, it was hit by a suv 35 miles away—the end of an amazing journey that started in the Black hills of western south dakota. . More than two months later, the same atmosphere of fear was still prevalent, aided and abetted by the media. If the same fear permeated communities in the west where cougars survive, people would cower in their homes. .
Survey in Fort Collins found that the combination of intense elk browsing on willows and simulated beaver cuttings produced stunted willow stands. Conversely, simulated beaver cutting without elk browsing produced verdant, healthy stands of willow. In the three-year experiment, willow stem biomass was 10 times greater on unbrowsed plants than on browsed plants. Unbrowsed plants recovered 84 percent of their pre-cut biomass after only two growing seasons, whereas browsed plants recovered only 6 percent. With elk on the move during the winter, willow stands recovered from intense browsing, and beaver rediscovered an abundant food source that hadn't been there earlier. As the beavers spread and built new dams and ponds, the cascade effect continued, said Smith. Beaver dams have multiple effects on stream hydrology.
So how did this avalanche of change work out for the beaver? To answer that, you have to go back to the 1930s, when the wolf was killed off in Yellowstone. Yellowstone elk were still preyed upon by black and grizzly bears, cougars and, to a lesser extent, coyotes, the absence of wolves took a huge amount of predatory pressure off the elk, said Smith. As a result, elk populations did very well-perhaps too well. Two things happened: the elk pushed the limits of Yellowstone's carrying capacity, and they didn't move around much in the winter-browsing heavily on young willow, aspen and cottonwood plants. That brugge was tough for beaver, who need willows to survive in winter. Healthier Willow Stands in Yellowstone, this created a counterintuitive situation. Back in 1968, said Smith, when the elk population was about a third what it is today, the willow stands along streams were in bad shape.
What happened when wolves were reintroduced to a habitat from
On a quiet spring morning, psoriasis a resounding "Slap!" reverberates through the air above a remote stream leading to lake yellowstone. Over much of the past century, it has been a rarely heard noise in the soundscape that is Yellowstone national Park, but today is growing more common-the sound of a beaver slapping its tail on the water as a warning to other beavers. When the grey wolf was reintroduced into the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in 1995, there was only one beaver colony in the park, said doug Smith, a wildlife biologist in charge of the yellowstone wolf Project. Today, the park is home to nine beaver colonies, with the promise of more to come, as the reintroduction of wolves continues to astonish biologists with a ripple of direct and indirect consequences throughout the ecosystem. A flourishing beaver population is just one of those consequences, said Smith. A yellowstone beaver's Tale of Elk. What happened, said Smith, is that the presence of wolves triggered a still-unfolding cascade effect among animals and plants-one that will take decades of research to understand. "It is like kicking a pebble down a mountain slope where conditions were just right that a falling pebble could trigger an avalanche of change smith mused.